According to Vladimir Dorofeyeva , ships in this series , starting with ” Kazan ” , decided to create one document , and the output will not be fundamentally different from each other . This is done with the aim to optimize costs and shorten the construction of submarines. Yes and Navy need not isolated , even unique ships , and their series – so that submariners could be trained on a single program , and the crews of nuclear submarines of the same type would be interchangeable.
Multipurpose nuclear submarines series “Ash ” refers to the fourth generation of nuclear submarines of this type and have the original architecture. This also applies to the outer hull , and its internal layout . The project used a compromise (or – mixed) system when light body ” covers ” only certain parts of the pressure hull of the submarine. First time in the domestic shipbuilding torpedo tubes are not in front of the ship , and for the central control compartment , allowing to place the antenna in the bow of a new sonar system . Due to the fact that the front part of the ship was ” pure acoustic ” significantly increased search potential sonar system , providing crucial for ships of this class excellence in a duel situation : “Ash” should “hear” the enemy ships before he is discovered .
For missile weapons used eight vertical launchers. Powerful weapons complex includes supersonic cruise missiles such as ” Onyx ” and ” Caliber ” , and universal deep homing torpedoes . The submarine will have a displacement of 8600 ( on the surface ) and 13,800 tons submerged. Vessel dimensions ( length , width and height ) – 119 x 13.5 x 9.4 meters . Maximum depth – 600 meters. Speed - 30 knots. Regular crew – 90 people , including 32 officers .
The lead ship of the series – the K- 560 ” Severodvinsk ” – laid on Sevmash December 21, 1993 . Launched in June 2010. Passed the whole cycle of the factory running tests . Upon successful completion of the state will be transferred to the Navy . Followed by submarine “Kazan” laid July 24, 2009 and is based on the 885M upgrade projects “Ash -M .” It is distinguished by new electronic weapons systems and automation at the most modern components , and all equipment and materials supplied exclusively by Russian producers .
Third , is the serial ship “Novosibirsk” ( the same project “Ash -M” ) was officially founded July 26, 2013 , although dostapelnye work on it started two years ago. According to the Naval Doctrine , submarines of this type built a large series and replace multipurpose nuclear submarines of the third generation , who are now in the Russian Navy .
The three-masted barque “Comrade” can be attributed to the world-known series of five nautical sailing ships. They are similar in their seagoing qualities and some took their place among the tall ships in the world.
Bark “Comrade” was built in 1933 at the shipyard «Blom & Foss» in Hamburg under the name of «Gorch Fock» in honor of the famous German painter of seascapes. He served as a training ship for naval establishments Third Reich. After the Second World War in 1948, a ship passed on reparations to the USSR. Port of Kronstadt began his residence. After his stay in the Baltic Sea sailboat was passed in Kherson Marine College, where it received a practice passed through the school of courage and training of students of maritime training institutions. In 1957, the barque “comrade” has brought international fame first voyage to the shores of India.
Feature of the sailing vessel “Comrade” was the underwater part of the body, made in a smooth style without welding, which raises the performance characteristics of the vehicle. Over time, a sailing ship has worn and needed a major overhaul. Although Ukraine is a country with a developed shipbuilding industry, it was beyond the power restoration of the historic ship.
The destroyers have become the workhorses of the modern navy. The latest and most sophisticated version of this ship class destroyer «Arleigh Burke». Modern platform for weapons and the most modern radar system allowed these ships to dominate the seas for decades to come. It is these warships set standards of world military shipbuilding for many years. What is the secret known destroyers.
Pictured above are the modern class destroyers «Arleigh Burke». They are in service with the U.S. Navy and are considered the best ships in the world because of their versatility. Not only for today «Arleigh Burke» it destroyers champions – their displacement is 5,000 tons. For this indicator, they are the largest surface ships in the entire post-war history of the American Navy.
Design of a new type of aircraft carriers «CVNX» began in 1996. At the initial stage of the work on the project committee was formed, which developed the following recommendations. Warship should have a displacement of at least 100 thousand tons and a large flight deck to base on it the whole wing and flight support future aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles, in almost any weather conditions. Considered appropriate to equip the future of nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, allowing it to carry out an emergency transition to the area of destination on the high-speed range without refueling. Unified power system must provide not only the work of support mechanisms, but also the use of advanced weapons systems. In order to improve the survivability of surface ship Commission recommended the adoption of measures to reduce the acoustic and electromagnetic signatures, and in order to save money – to reduce the number of crew, the cost of construction and maintenance costs, as well as eliminate the need for recharging nuclear reactors.
By adopting these recommendations, began designing a new warship. At this, according to developers, will take about 20 years, during which will be built three aircraft carriers to the body of the “Nimitz”, with a target setting to create an aircraft carrier of the future, vastly superior combat capabilities of the existing surface ship of the class. The designers were tasked with lower life cycle cost to ship 20 percent. Part of the project will be implemented already during the construction of the aircraft carrier «CVN-77″, which will be intermediate between the existing type “Nimitz” and the ships of the new project design, specifications and technical solutions. Threat to aircraft carriers may be guided missiles, advanced torpedoes, aircraft or cruise missiles. In connection with this, along with the improvement of structural protection and means of self-defense project developers seek to reduce radar visibility and opto-looking aircraft carriers. Research project «CVNX» confirmed the expediency of replacing a large superstructure with two small, use of conformal antennas, rounded interface boards with the flight deck, special coatings and other measures related to the use of technology “stealth”, as well as all or part of samoletopodemnikov place not at the board, and in the center plane of the warship.
This facility is not really even like the ship, but the ship, which was built for a busy day of oil and gas resources in the cold North Atlantic and drilling at a depth of 3000 meters. Floating City on stilts with men and women on the board and named after the Viking king Eric the Red recklessly swims in the most dangerous part of the North Atlantic, where the storms are born.
Large ships belongs to a class of deep, self-propelled semi-submersible oil rigs and sails the oceans in search of oil and gas 24 hours a day. All crew members on board the ship are working in shifts 12 hours. And after 21 days of leave for a vacation. It consists of four groups: 1) engineers, and 2) the ship’s crew, and 3) the drilling crew, and 4) staff. But they are all members of one community. Atlantic harsh place. Wind, pitching, ice, fog, are all present in full. People are used in extreme operating conditions. To maintain a constant readiness exercises are conducted on the ship.
«Eirik Raude» biggest oil-producing vessel in the world. This huge ship owned and serviced by a Norwegian company «Ocean Rig», which runs across the Atlantic. A ship is equipped with all the necessary systems to locate in the waters all year round, where the height of the waves can reach the level of the deck. The cost of building owners to install cost 498 million dollars, but they do not worry about it because «Eirik Raude» earns an average of 53 million U.S. dollars a year.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, powerful, short-range attackers. Destroyers, originally called torpedo-boat destroyers in 1892,evolved from the response of navies to the threat posed by the torpedo boat. Growing from earlier defensive developments, the “torpedo boat destroyer”(TBD) first appeared as a distinct class of warship when HMS Havock and HMS Hornet were commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1894.By the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, TBDs were “large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats.”Although the term destroyer had been used interchangeably with the terms “TBD” and “torpedo boat destroyer” by navies since 1892, the term torpedo boat destroyer had been generally shortened to simply “destroyer” by nearly all navies by theFirst World War.Prior to World War II, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships and cruisers. This resulted in larger and more powerful destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the beginning of the 21st century, destroyers are the heaviest surface combatant ships in general use, with only three nations (the United States, Russia, andPeru) operating the heavier class cruisers and none operating battleships or true battlecruisers.Modern destroyers, also known as guided missile destroyers, are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, capable of carrying nuclear missiles. Guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke class are actually larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers, due to their massive size at 510 feet (160 m) long, displacement (9200 tons) and armament of over 90 missiles.
A cruiser is a type of warship. The term has been in use for several hundred years, and has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions – independent scouting, raiding or commerce protection – fulfilled by a frigate or sloop, which were the cruising warships of a fleet.
From the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for this kind of role, though cruisers came in a wide variety of sizes, from the small protected cruiser to armoured cruisers which were as large (though not as powerful) as a battleship.
By the early 20th century, cruisers could be placed on a consistent scale of warship size, smaller than a battleship but larger than a destroyer. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty placed a formal limit on cruisers, which were defined as warships of up to 10,000 tons displacement carrying guns no larger than 8 inches in calibre. These limits shaped cruisers up until the end of World War II. The very large battlecruisers of the World War I era were now classified, along with battleships, as capital ships.
In the later 20th century, the obsolescence of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant. The role of the cruiser varied according to ship and navy, often including air defense, commerce raiding and shore bombardment. The U.S. Navy in the Cold War period built guided-missile cruisers primarily designed to provide air defense, while the navy of the USSR built cruisers with heavy anti-ship missiles designed to sink NATO carrier task forces.
Currently only three nations, the United States, Russia, and Peru (BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) while still in service with the Peruvian Navy), operate cruisers, though the line between cruisers and destroyers is once again blurred. New models of destroyers (for instance the Zumwalt class) are often larger and more powerful than cruiser classes they replace.
A corvette (sometimes corvet) is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, originally smaller than a frigate (2000+ tons) and larger than a coastal patrol craft orfast attack craft (500 or fewer tons),although many recent designs resemble frigates in size and role. During the Age of Sail, corvettes were smaller than frigates and larger than sloops-of-war, usually with a single gun deck.
Although almost all modern navies use ships smaller than frigates for coastal duty, not all of them use the term corvette (via Middle French, from a Dutch word corf, a type of boat) or equivalent. The rank “corvette captain”, equivalent in many navies to “lieutenant commander”, derives from the name of this type of ship
Modern navies began a trend in the late 20th and early 21st century towards smaller, more maneuverable surface capability. Corvettes have a displacement between 540 and 2,750 long tons (550 and 2,790 t) and measure 180–330 feet (55–100 m) in length. They are usually armed with medium- and small-caliber guns, surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and anti-submarine weapons. Many can accommodate a small or medium anti-submarine warfare helicopter.
Most countries with coastlines can build corvette size ships, either as part of their commercial shipbuilding activities or in purpose built yards, however the sensors, weapons and other systems required for a surface combatant are more specialized and are around sixty percent of the total cost. These components are purchased on the international market.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship afloat, and a fleet of battleships was vital for any nation which desired to maintain command of the sea. During World War II, the battleship was replaced by the aircraft carrier as the most powerful kind of warship afloat. Some battleships remained in service during the Cold War and the last were decommissioned in the 1990s.
The word battleship was coined around 1794 and is a contraction of the phrase line-of-battle ship, the dominant wooden warship during the Age of Sail.The term came into formal use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship, now referred to by historians as pre-dreadnought battleships. In 1906, the commissioning of HMS Dreadnought heralded a revolution in battleship design. Following battleship designs, influenced by HMS Dreadnought, were referred to as “dreadnoughts”.
Battleships were a symbol of naval dominance and national might, and for decades the battleship was a major factor in both diplomacy and military strategy.The global arms race in battleship construction began in Europe, following the 1890 publication of Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783.This arms race culminated at the decisive Battle of Tsushima in 1905;the outcome of which significantly influenced the design of HMS Dreadnought.The launch of Dreadnought in 1906 commenced a new naval arms race which was widely considered to have been an indirect cause of World War I.The Naval Treaties of the 1920s and 1930s limited the number of battleships, though technical innovation in battleship design continued. Both the Allies and the Axis Powersdeployed battleships during World War II.
The value of the battleship has been questioned, even during the period of their prominence. In spite of the immense resources spent on battleships, there were few pitched battleship clashes. Even with their enormous firepower and protection, battleships were increasingly vulnerable to much smaller, cheaper ordnance and craft: initially the torpedo and the naval mine, and later aircraft and the guided missile.The growing range of naval engagements led to the aircraft carrier replacing the battleship as the leading capital ship during World War II, with the last battleship to be launched being HMS Vanguard in 1944. Battleships were retained by theUnited States Navy into the Cold War for fire support purposes. The last US battleships, USS Wisconsin and USS Missouri,were decommissioned in 1991 and 1992, and finally stricken from the U.S. Naval Vessel Register in 2006 and 1995, respectively.
A battlecruiser, or battle cruiser, was a large capital ship built in the first half of the 20th century. They were similar in size and cost to a battleship, and typically carried the same kind of heavy guns, but battlecruisers generally carried less armour and were faster.
The first battlecruisers were developed in the United Kingdom in the first decade of the century, as a development of the armoured cruiser, at the same time the dreadnought succeeded the pre-dreadnought battleship. The original aim of the battlecruiser was to hunt down slower, older armoured cruisers and destroy them with heavy gunfire. However, as more and more battlecruisers were built, they increasingly became used alongside the better-protected battleships.
Battlecruisers served in the navies of Britain, Germany, Australia and Japan during World War I, most notably at the Battle of the Falkland Islands and in the several raids and skirmishes in the North Sea which culminated in a pitched fleet battle, the Battle of Jutland. British battlecruisers in particular suffered heavy losses at Jutland, where their light armour made them very vulnerable to battleship shells.
By the end of the war, capital ship design had developed with battleships becoming faster and battlecruisers becoming more and more heavily armoured, blurring the distinction between a battlecruiser and a fast battleship. The Washington Naval Treaty, which limited capital ship construction from 1922 onwards, treated battleships and battlecruisers identically, and the new generation of battlecruisers planned was scrapped under the terms of the treaty.
From the 1930s, only the Royal Navy continued to use ‘battlecruiser’ as a classification for warships, for the WWI-era capital ships that remained in the fleet. (While Japan’s battlecruisers continued in service, they were significantly reconstructed and re-rated as battleships.) Nevertheless, the fast, light capital ships developed by Germany and France of the Scharnhorst and Dunkerque classes, respectively, are sometimes referred to as battlecruisers.
The Second World War saw battlecruisers in action again, mostly consisting of modernized WWI ships and the fast battleships built in the 1930s. There was also renewed interest in large “cruiser killer” type warships, but few ever began construction, as construction of capital ships was curtailed in favor of more needed convoy escorts, aircraft carriers, and cargo ships. In the post–World War II era, the SovietKirov class of large guided missile cruisers have also been termed “battlecruisers”.